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An Introduction.' Is one of the foundational articles in the field, written by Martin Seligman and Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi. Positive Psychology an Introduction. How the science of positive traits, experiences and organizations was born, enabling a deeper understanding of the building factors that allow people, institutions and societies to flourish. The Science of Self- Help - The New Atlantis. Algis Valiunas. A vast apparatus of uplift and solicitude services Americans’ longings for success and happiness. Self- help, positive thinking, actualization, motivation, empowerment: the industry of worldly. Since the late. Martin seligman is often called the “father of positive psychology“. Check out pictures, bibliography, and biography of martin e. Martin seligman introduces the scientific foundations of positive psychology controllogix instruction set manual and key research findings that led to a revolutionary understanding of what makes.

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BornAugust 12, 1942 (age 77)
Alma materPrinceton University (A.B.)
University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D.)
Known forPositive psychology
Learned helplessness
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Pennsylvania (Zellerbach Family Professor of Psychology)

Martin Elias Pete Seligman (/ˈsɛlɪɡmən/; born August 12, 1942) is an American psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books. Seligman is a strong promoter within the scientific community of his theories of positive psychology[1] and of well-being. His theory of learned helplessness is popular among scientific and clinical psychologists.[2] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Seligman as the 31st most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[3]

Seligman is the Zellerbach Family Professor of Psychology in the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Psychology. Brendon burchard productivity pdf. He was previously the Director of the Clinical Training Program in the department, and earlier taught at Cornell University.[4] He is the director of the university's Positive Psychology Center.[1] Seligman was elected President of the American Psychological Association for 1998.[5] He is the founding editor-in-chief of Prevention and Treatment (the APA electronic journal) and is on the board of advisers of Parents magazine.

Seligman has written about positive psychology topics in books such as The Optimistic Child, Child's Play, Learned Optimism, Authentic Happiness and Flourish. His most recent book, The Hope Circuit: A Psychologist's Journey from Helplessness to Optimism, was published in 2018.

  • 5Well-being

Early life and education[edit]

Martin E. P. Seligman Quotes

Seligman was born in Albany, New York to a Jewish family. He was educated at a public school and at The Albany Academy. He earned a bachelor's degree in philosophy at Princeton University in 1964, graduating Summa Cum Laude.[citation needed] He turned down a scholarship to study analytic philosophy at Oxford University, and animal experimental psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, and accepted an offer to attend the University of Pennsylvania to study psychology.[6] He earned a Ph.D. in psychology from University of Pennsylvania in 1967.[citation needed] On June 2, 1989, Seligman received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Social Sciences at Uppsala University, Sweden.[7]

Learned helplessness[edit]

Inescapable shock training in the shuttle box

Seligman's foundational experiments and theory of 'learned helplessness' began at University of Pennsylvania in 1967, as an extension of his interest in depression. Quite by accident, Seligman and colleagues discovered that the experimental conditioning protocol they used with dogs led to behaviors which were unexpected, in that under the experimental conditions, the recently conditioned dogs did not respond to opportunities to learn to escape from an unpleasant situation.[8]Seligman developed the theory further, finding learned helplessness to be a psychological condition in which a human being or an animal has learned to act or behave helplessly in a particular situation — usually after experiencing some inability to avoid an adverse situation — even when it actually has the power to change its unpleasant or even harmful circumstance. Seligman saw a similarity with severely depressed patients, and argued that clinical depression and related mental illnesses result in part from a perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation.[9] In later years, alongside Abramson, Seligman reformulated his theory of learned helplessness to include attributional style.[10]


In his 2002 book Authentic Happiness, Seligman saw happiness as made up of positive emotion, engagement and meaning.[11]

Positive psychology[edit]

Authentic Happiness Martin E P Seligman Pdf Printer

Seligman worked with Christopher Peterson to create what they describe as a 'positive' counterpart to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While the DSM focuses on what can go wrong, Character Strengths and Virtues (2004) is designed to look at what can go right. In their research they looked across cultures and across millennia to attempt to distill a manageable list of virtues that have been highly valued from ancient China and India, through Greece and Rome, to contemporary Western cultures. Their list includes six character strengths: wisdom/knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Each of these has three to five sub-entries; for instance, temperance includes forgiveness, humility, prudence, and self-regulation.[12] The authors do not believe that there is a hierarchy for the six virtues; no one is more fundamental than or a precursor to the others.

Martin E.p.seligman Books


In his book Flourish, 2011, Seligman wrote on 'Well-Being Theory',[13] and said, with respect to how he measures well-being; 'Each element of well-being must itself have three properties to count as an element:

  1. It contributes to well-being.
  2. Many people pursue it for its own sake, not merely to get any of the other elements.
  3. It is defined and measured independently of the other elements.'

He concluded that there are five elements to 'well-being', which fall under the mnemonic PERMA:[13]

  • Positive emotion—Can only be assessed subjectively
  • Engagement—Like positive emotion, can only be measured through subjective means. It is presence of a flow state
  • Relationships—The presence of friends, family, intimacy, or social connection
  • Meaning—Belonging to and serving something bigger than one's self
  • Achievement—Accomplishment that is pursued even when it brings no positive emotion, no meaning, and nothing in the way of positive relationships.

These theories have not been empirically validated.

In July 2011, Seligman encouraged the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, to look into well-being as well as financial wealth in ways of assessing the prosperity of a nation. On July 6, 2011, Seligman appeared on Newsnight and was interviewed by Jeremy Paxman about his ideas and his interest in the concept of well-being.

Flourish Martin Seligman Pdf

MAPP program[edit]

The Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) program at the University of Pennsylvania was established under the leadership of Seligman as the first educational initiative of the Positive Psychology Center in 2003.[14]

Personal life[edit]

Seligman plays bridge and finished second in the 1998 installment of one of the three major North American pair championships, the Blue Ribbon Pairs, as well as having won over 50 regional championships.[15]

Seligman has seven children, four grandchildren, and two dogs. He and his second wife, Mandy, live in a house that was once occupied by Eugene Ormandy. They have home-schooled five of their seven children.[16]

Seligman was inspired by the work of the psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck at the University of Pennsylvania in refining his own cognitive techniques and exercises.[17]


  • — (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN978-0-7167-0752-3. (Paperback reprint edition, W.H. Freeman, 1992, ISBN0-7167-2328-X)
  • — (1991). Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life. New York: Knopf. ISBN978-0-671-01911-2. (Paperback reprint edition, Penguin Books, 1998; reissue edition, Free Press, 1998)
  • — (1993). What You Can Change and What You Can't: The Complete Guide to Successful Self-Improvement. New York: Knopf. ISBN978-0-679-41024-9. (Paperback reprint edition, Ballantine Books, 1995, ISBN0-449-90971-9)
  • — (1996). The Optimistic Child: Proven Program to Safeguard Children from Depression & Build Lifelong Resilience. New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN978-0091831196. (Paperback edition, Harper Paperbacks, 1996, ISBN0-06-097709-4)
  • — (2002). Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. New York: Free Press. ISBN978-0-7432-2297-6. (Paperback edition, Free Press, 2004, ISBN0-7432-2298-9)
  • — (Spring 2004). 'Can Happiness be Taught?'. Daedalus. 133 (2): 80–87. doi:10.1162/001152604323049424.
  • Peterson, Christopher; Seligman, Martin E.P. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0195167016.
  • — (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. New York: Free Press. ISBN978-1-4391-9075-3.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abPositive Psychology CenterArchived July 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. ^Bower, Gordon H. (1981). The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory. Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 30. ISBN9780125433150. 'The most popular theoretical interpretation of the learned helplessness phenomenon to date is that of Seligman (1975) and Maier and Seligman (1976).'
  3. ^Haggbloom, Steven J.; et al. (2002). 'The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century'. Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.
  4. ^'A Brief Biography of Psychologist Martin Seligman'.
  5. ^'Former APA Presidents'. American Psychological Association.
  6. ^'Martin Seligman, Ph.D.'[permanent dead link]
  7. ^'Honorary doctorates'. Uppsala University, Sweden.
  8. ^Seligman, M.E.P.; Maier, S.F. (1967). 'Failure to escape traumatic shock'. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 74 (1): 1–9. CiteSeerX10.1.1.611.8411. doi:10.1037/h0024514. PMID6032570.; Overmier, J.B.; Seligman, M.E.P. (1967). 'Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding'. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 63 (1): 28–33. doi:10.1037/h0024166. PMID6029715.
  9. ^Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN978-0-7167-2328-8.
  10. ^Abramson, L.Y.; Seligman, M.E.P.; Teasdale, JD (1978). 'Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation'. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 87 (1): 49–74. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49. PMID649856.
  11. ^'What is Well-Being? Authentic Happiness'.
  12. ^Linley, P.A.; Maltby, J.; Wood, A.M.; Joseph, S.; Harrington, S.; Peterson, C.; Park, N.; Seligman, M.E.P. (2007). 'Character strengths in the United Kingdom: The VIA Inventory of strengths'(PDF). Personality and Individual Differences. 43 (2): 341–351. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.12.004. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 17, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2009.Cite uses deprecated parameter dead-url= (help)
  13. ^ abSeligman, Martin (2011). Flourish. New York: Free Press. pp. 16–20. ISBN9781439190760.
  14. ^'MAPP program'. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
  15. ^Francis, Henry G., Editor-in-Chief; Truscott, Alan F., Executive Editor; Francis, Dorthy A., Editor, Sixth Edition (2001). The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge (6th ed.). Memphis, TN: American Contract Bridge League. p. 732. ISBN0-943855-44-6. OCLC49606900.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  16. ^Burling, Stacey (May 30, 2010). 'The power of a positive thinker'. The Inquirer - Interstate General Media. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  17. ^Hirtz, Rob (January 1999). 'Martin Seligman's Journey: from Learned Helplessness to Learned Happiness'. The Pennsylvania Gazette. The University of Pennsylvania.

External links[edit]

  • Authentic Happiness, Seligman's homepage at University of Pennsylvania
  • 'Eudaemonia, the Good Life: A Talk with Martin Seligman', an article wherein Seligman speaks extensively on the topic of eudaemonia
  • 'The Positive Psychology Center', a website devoted to positive psychology. Martin Seligman is director of the Positive Psychology Center of the University of Pennsylvania.
  • Program description for Master of Applied Positive Psychology degree established by Seligman
  • Martin E. P. Seligman's curriculum vitae at the University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Pennsylvania's page on MAPP program

Authentic Happiness By Martin E. P. Seligman

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